Jade comes from the Spanish invaders. They named the jade plundered by Mexico as Pieda be ijade. Jade (ijade) is the last word of the word.
China is the earliest and most extensive country in the world to mine and use jade. There are many records in ancient books, and the names are also very complicated, such as water jade, relic jade, adornment jade, fragrant jade, nephrite, etc. The tremolite nephrite jade unearthed at the Chahai site in Fuxin City, Liaoning Province, is about 8,000 years ago (early Neolithic period), and is the earliest real jade known in the world so far. The most famous jade in China is Xinjiang Hetian jade, which is known as China’s four famous jade along with Dushan jade in Henan, Xiuyan jade in Liaoning and Lantian jade in Shaanxi.
Jade is one of the more noble minerals. Jade is rich in many trace elements, such as zinc, iron, copper, manganese, magnesium, cobalt, selenium, chromium, titanium, lithium, calcium, potassium, sodium and so on. The moisturizing of jade can eliminate the impetuous heart, the color of jade can please the bored heart, and the purity of jade can purify the dirty heart. So a gentleman loves jade, hoping to find natural aura in jade. Jade is the beauty of stone, and the color is positive and moisturizing is pure top-grade. The same is true for gems. Its value does not entirely depend on the ingredients, and most of the jadeite white jade is worthless. Just like people, every nation has heroes.
Nephrite in a narrow sense refers to Hetian jade, and in a broad sense, it includes more than ten kinds of nephrite, such as Xiuyan jade, Nanyang jade, and Jiuquan jade. Many nephrite jade has a long history, such as Xiuyan jade. Jadeite refers only to jade.
"Jade is a special ore that has been screened and confirmed to have social and precious properties during the tens of thousands of years of using selected stone materials to make tools." "Shuowen Jiezi" explains jade as "the beauty of stone, jade is also". "Cihai" defines jade simplified as "beautiful stone with moist and luster".
These kinds of statements are the jade we are talking about in a broad sense today. It includes not only Hetian jade and jade, but also chalcedony, Xiuyan jade, Nanyang jade, crystal, agate, amber, coral, turquoise, lapis lazuli, and yellow dragon jade. And other traditional jade. Modern mineralogy divides jade into two categories: jadeite and nephrite. Jadeite is jadeite, while nephrite mainly refers to Hetian jade in Xinjiang, which is the narrow definition of "jade".
Judging from the history of the use of jade in China, Xinjiang Hetian jade was only used on a large scale after the Shang Dynasty. Before that, the jade materials used in various places were basically all kinds of beautiful stones from local materials. Therefore, the definition of Chinese jade cannot rely solely on the standards of modern mineralogy, but should proceed from a historical perspective, respect traditional habits, and take jade in a broad sense as the object of research on jadeware and jade culture.
Regarding the concept of jade, jade in a broad sense should have three characteristics:
First, the material meets the requirements of "Meishi";
The second is to have the basic styles of typical jade wares in shape;
The third is that the jadeware must be made by special jade production methods such as milling, drilling and other techniques, rather than the general stone-making process. Furthermore, the jade article studied should have a certain historical age, and its historical value must be emphasized.
Nephrite jade mainly includes white jade, blue-white jade, topaz, purple jade, black jade, jasper, sapphire, red jade and so on. Among them, topaz is a good product with a color like engine oil, purple jade is usually light pink, black jade is actually jade with black spots on jasper, and sapphire is white jade with a dull blue color. White jade is usually best.
Jadeite is jade, and its colors are white, purple, and green. It can be called Bingdier (white) or Qingdier (green). Green is the best. The three-color jade is also called "Taoyuan Jieyi" or "Fu Lu Shou".